These utilize micro- and nano-porous ceramics in the occlusion of microbes (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa) from biologically contaminated water. Novel approaches are also being explored for the removal of viruses and chemical contaminants (fluoride) from water. Recent work by AUST PhD student, Ebenezer Annan, has studied the flow through these ceramic water filters. Banks of water filters have also been assembled to produce sufficient potable water for rural/urban communities. These are being tested in ongoing studies.